The concept of “marketing” appeared much later than the process itself. Marketing elements were already used when trade first appeared, 6-7 thousand years ago.
Marketing is a process, the essence of which is the prediction of the needs of the potential buyer and the selection of the most optimal ways to satisfy those needs.
This is done by offering the customer the products or services he needs.
Since the emergence of the product market, forms of marketing, which represent the basic principles of pricing and advertising, have actively begun to develop. Settlements or families that did not have certain goods could by buying and selling or bartering
get what they needed. But there were also those who purposefully engaged in the production and sale of products. It was they who began to form the foundations of advertising and marketing. The first are the inhabitants of Ancient Egypt and the Sumerians.
For centuries, nothing has changed in this field, but since the end of the 17th century, marketing has taken a different form. According to historical data, the term and principles of selling consumer-oriented products were already in use at that time.
Japan is considered the birthplace of marketing, where the first general merchandise store was opened in 1960. The owner visited other stores and sellers, watched for a long time which products were not selling and did not buy them for his store. As a result, he only sold the products that the customers needed. American economist and management theorist Peter Drucker believes that the store in Japan is the first of its kind where the owner has developed such sales principles.
– 1860-1920 The global economy, in the background of the development of technology and the improvement of methods of information transmission, begins to work on models of marketing behavior. In developed countries, the ratio of supply and demand is increasing, so the market has begun to actively increase the number of products.
– 1920-1930 Due to the increase in the number and variety of products, their quality level also increases. The main leaders and principles of the monopoly began to take shape in the market of that time.
– 1930-1960 Due to wars in the world, economic recession in many countries, the supply began to exceed the demand. Business owners and product manufacturers are realizing that at this point, more effort needs to be put into modernizing the trading process than manufacturing. Market behavior, reactions, buyer psychology and consumer behavior patterns are studied. Thanks to this, the basic principles of trade and marketing are formed, which have not changed in fact since then.
After the end of World War II, trade and the world economy take a drastic turn. The market began production by focusing on consumer psychology and research by economists. People buy trust before they buy a product.
Marketing became a large-scale process run by professionals. Now not only individuals could do it, but all commercial companies opened separate marketing departments.
The first to do this was Cyrus McCormick. He founded the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company, which was one of the largest manufacturers of agricultural machinery.
The peculiarity of the company was that they opened a marketing department, where managers worked. The tasks were considered one of the most important because they were the ones who thought about sales strategies and ways to influence existing customers and potential consumers.
After this, the period of appearance of computers began. It differs in that a radical transformation of the entire sales process and the operation of trading platforms takes place. Marketing and advertising have become the basic philosophy of sales and an effective means of communication between the consumer and the customer. Sales became a complex system linked to the product manufacturing process, as managers and marketers themselves influenced product features and appearance. Psychology and market needs are studied.
The concept of internet marketing is starting to emerge. With the advent of computers, consumers and business owners have the ability to exchange information, messages, and product promotions much more easily. Large companies and organizations immediately appreciated the new alternative and addition to the classic sales method. In 1990, it was not thought that personal computers would become so popular, so at first the company focused on communicating with sales points, wholesale buyers of products and similar companies. But over time, the market was more and more filled with new technologies, so organizations began to create their own web resources with the ability to publish the most popular products, and then present all products.
Marketing – characteristics and goals
Marketing activity is a complex and lengthy process that should be carried out by professionals.
Types of marketing include:
– study of consumers, market requirements and its characteristics, product properties;
– planning and development of sales strategy;
– price policy;
– features of product packaging and appearance;
– implementation of marketing communication complex.
– sales activity;
– different forms of international transactions.
The goal of marketing is the ability to attract new customers by providing them with better purchase conditions than competitors, as well as the ability to retain old customers.
This is achieved through effective market research and constant satisfaction of changing user needs.
The main task of marketing is to determine the needs of the customer, the general needs of the market and adapt the product to them in such a way that the manufacturing company makes a profit. This allows the company to produce better quality products, increasing sales and profits for the owner.
Marketing activities begin when the idea for a particular product or product launch is created. Specialists (marketers and managers) conduct research and determine the needs of the market and potential users. In addition, the question of whether the company can engage in the production of this product or service is decided. After that, the full production of the product starts.
Marketers continue to work on product development strategies all the time, from inception to delivery to the customer and receiving feedback. Thanks to user feedback, the company can effectively develop the product and make it better.
Production and sales must meet the requirements of the market and potential buyers and target audience. They must also meet the capabilities of the manufacturer.
Meeting the buyer’s requirements and basic needs.
Timely presence of the company in the market – at the moment when the user needs it and when the market needs the presence of a certain product or service.
Regular updating of products, quality improvement.
Ability to respond to market changes in time.
Thanks to effective marketing, the company can achieve high profits and satisfy the needs of users to the maximum.